Double Tax Treaty between Luxembourg & Kazakhstan

CONVENTION

BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL

The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital,

have agreed as follows:

Article 1

PERSONS COVERED

This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

  1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its central or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
  2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital all taxes imposed on total income, on total capital, or on elements of income or of capital, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises, as well as taxes on capital appreciation.
  1. The existing taxes to which this Convention shall apply are in particular:
  1. a) in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg:

(i) the income tax on individuals (l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques);

(ii) the corporation tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des collectivités);

(iii) the capital tax (l’impôt sur la fortune); and

(iv) the communal trade tax (l’impôt commercial communal); and

(hereinafter referred to as “Luxembourg tax”).

  1. b) in the Republic of Kazakhstan:

(i) the corporate income tax;

(ii) the individual income tax;

(iii) the tax on property of the legal entities and individuals

(hereinafter referred to as “Kazakhstan tax”).

  1. This Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes on income and on capital that are imposed after the date of entry into force of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their taxation laws.

 

Article 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires the term:
  2. a) “Luxembourg” means the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;
  1. b) “Kazakhstan” means the Republic of Kazakhstan and, when used in a geographical sense, the term “Kazakhstan” includes the State territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan and areas where Kazakhstan exercises its sovereign rights and jurisdiction according to its legislation and international agreements of which it is participant;
  1. c) “person” includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
  1. d) “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
  1. e) “enterprise” applies to the carrying on of any business;
  1. f) “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
  1. g) “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
  1. h) “competent authority” means:

(i) in Luxembourg: the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative;

(ii) in Kazakhstan: the Ministry of Finance or its authorised representative;

  1. i) “national” means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;

  1. j) “business” includes the performance of professional services and of other activities of an independent character;
  1. k) “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” mean the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg or Kazakhstan, as the context requires;
  1. l) “capital” for the purposes of Article 21 of this Convention means the movable and immovable property and includes (but not limited to them) cash money resources, shares or other documents confirming property rights, bills, bonds or other  liabilities, and also patents, trade marks, copyrights or other similar right or property;
  1. m) “pool” for the purposes of this Convention means also the union of persons or entities fulfilling co-exploitation of containerization in international transportation the exploitation’s profit of which is directed into total fund and distributed according to an agreement on the creation of a pool.
  1. As regards the application of the Convention at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Convention applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4

RESIDENT

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, citizenship, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State, any central and local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.
  1. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
  1. a) he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests);
  1. b) if the State in which he has his centre of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;
  1. c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;
  1. d) if the residence status cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs a) to c), the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
  1. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

 

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

  1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  1. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:
  2. a) a place of management;
  3. b) a branch;
  4. c) an office;
  5. d) a factory;
  6. e) a workshop, and
  7. f) a mine, a pit, an oil or gas well, a quarry, an installation, a structure or any other place of extraction or exploration of natural resources.
  1. The term “permanent establishment” also encompasses:
  2. a) a building site, a construction, installation or assembly project, or supervisory services connected therewith, but only if such site or project lasts more than 12 months, or such services continue for more than 12 months;
  1. b) the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise of a Contracting State through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, but only where activities of that nature continue (for the same or a connected project) within the other Contracting State for more than 12 months.
  1. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:
  2. a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
  1. b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
  1. c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
  1. d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting Information, for the enterprise;
  1. e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
  1. f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) to e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person – other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies – is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such person:
  1. a) has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph; or
  1. b) has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise. The provisions of the foregoing sentence shall not apply, unless it is proved that in order to avoid taxation in the first-mentioned State, such person undertakes not only the regular delivery of the goods or merchandise, but also undertakes virtually all the activities connected with the sale of the goods or merchandise except for the actual conclusion of the sales contract itself.
  1. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
  1. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise.

 

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  1. In respect of paragraph 1 of this Article, profits derived from the sale of goods or merchandise of the same or similar kind as those sold, or from other business activities of the same or similar kind as those affected, through a permanent establishment, may be taxed in the State where the permanent establishment is situated but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 4, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  1. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions properly documented expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including reasonably allocated executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
  1. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  1. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless There is a good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
  1. Where profits include items of income which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.
  1. This Article shall also apply to income from a participation in a partnership. It shall further apply to a remuneration received by a partner from the partnership for activities in the service of the partnership and for the granting of loans or the provisions of assets, where such remuneration is attributable under the tax law of the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated to the income derived by a partner from that permanent establishment.

 

Article 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

  1. Profits derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
  2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

  1. Where
  2. a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
  1. b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,and in cases mentioned in sub-paragraphs a) and b) conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.
  1. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

DIVIDENDS

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:
  1. a) 5 percent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which holds directly at least 15 percent of the capital of the company paying the dividends;
  1. b) 15 percent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases. This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
  1. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares, “jouissance” shares or “jouissance” rights, mining shares, founders’ shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident, and the investor’s share of the profit in a commercial, industrial, mining or craft undertaking, paid proportionally to the profits and by virtue of his capital outlay, as well as interest and payments on bonds, where, over and above the fixed rate of interest, a right of assignment is granted for supplementary interest varying according to the unretained earnings.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the  dividends are paid and are effectively connected with such permanent establishments. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.
  1. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on the company’s undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other States.
  1. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing a Contracting State from imposing a special tax on the profits of a company attributable to a permanent establishment in that State, in addition to the tax which would be chargeable on the profits of a company which is a national of that State, provided that any additional tax shall not exceed 10 percent of the amount of such profits which have not been subjected to such additional tax in previous taxation years. For the purpose of this provision, the profits shall be determined after deducting there from all taxes, other than the additional tax referred to in this paragraph, imposed in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment is situated.

Article 11

INTEREST

  1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

(a) interest arising in the Republic of Kazakhstan shall be exempt from tax in the Republic of Kazakhstan if it is paid to:

(i) the Government of Luxembourg;

(ii) the local authorities of Luxembourg;

(iii) the Central Bank of Luxembourg;

(iv) the “Société Nationale de Crédit et d’Investissement”;

(v) any other institutions wholly owned by the Government of Luxembourg as may be agreed between the competent authorities of the Contracting States;

(b) interest arising in Luxembourg shall be exempt from tax in Luxembourg if it is pai to:

(i) the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

(ii) any central or local authorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

(iii) the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

(iv) the Sustainable Development Fund “Kazyna”;

(v) any other institutions wholly owned by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan as may be agreed between the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2:

(a) interest arising in Kazakhstan and paid to a resident of Luxembourg shall be exempt from tax in Kazakhstan if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or any other debt-claim or credit guaranteed or insured, by “l’Office du Ducroire”;

(b) interest arising in Luxembourg and paid to a resident of Kazakhstan shall be exempt from tax in Luxembourg if it is paid in respect of a loan made, guaranteed or insured, or any other debt-claim or credit guaranteed or insured, by “State Insurance Corporation for the Insurance of Export Credit and Investment”.

  1. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government or state securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. However, the term “interest” shall not include income referred to in Article 10.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such a permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.
  1. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated.
  1. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

9.The provision of this Article shall not apply if it was the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.

Article 12

ROYALTIES

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting States may be taxed in that other Contracting State.
  1. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that Contracting State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 percent of the gross amount of the royalties.
  1. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including software, cinematograph films, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience, and payments for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such a permanent establishment. In such case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.
  1. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in where the permanent establishment is situated.
  1. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the in the absence of such a relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.

 

  1. [Replaced by paragraph 1 of Article 7 of the MLI]2 [The provisions of this Article shall not apply if the main purpose or one of the main purposes of any person concerned with the creation or assignment of the rights in respect of which the royalties are paid to take advantage of this Article by means of that creation or assignment.]

 

Article 13

CAPITAL GAINS

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise), may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
  1. Gains from the alienation of:
  2. a) stocks, others than those substantially traded on regular basis on an approved Stock Exchange, participations or other rights in the capital of a company or other legal person (whether or not a resident of a Contracting State) the value of which consists principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State; or
  1. b) an interest in a partnership (whether or not a resident of a Contracting State) to the extent that it is attributable to real property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “immovable property” includes the shares of a company referred to in subparagraph (a) or an interest in a partnership.
  1. Gains derived from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in the preceding paragraphs, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

 

Article 14

INCOME FROM EMPLOYMENT

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 15, 17 and 18, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefore may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
  1. a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned, and
  1. b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
  1. c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment which the employer has in the other State.
  1. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State from an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic may be taxed in that Contracting State.

 

Article 15

DIRECTORS’ FEES

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

 

Article 16

ARTISTES AND SPORTSPERSONS

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7 and 14, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sports person are exercised.

 

Article 17

PENSIONS

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 18, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions and other payments made under the social security legislation of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions and other similar remuneration (including lump-sum payments) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State, provided that such payments derive from contributions paid to or from provisions made under a pension scheme by the recipient or on his behalf and that these contributions, provisions or the pensions or other similar remuneration have been subjected to tax in the first-mentioned State under the ordinary rules of its tax laws.

 

Article 18

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

  1. a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or central or local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or central or local authority shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. b) However, such salaries, wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who :

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

  1. a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by a Contracting State or central or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or central or local authority shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.
  2. The provisions of Articles 14, 15, 16 and 17 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, and to pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or central or a local authority thereof.

Article 19

PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

  1. Payments which a student or business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.
  1. An individual who visits a Contracting State at the invitation of that State or of a university, college, school, museum or other cultural institution of that State or under an official programme of cultural exchange for a period not exceeding two years solely for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures or carrying out research at such institution and who is, or was immediately before that visit, a resident of the other Contracting  State shall be exempt from tax in the, first-mentioned State on his remuneration for such activity, provided that such remuneration is derived by him from outside that State.

 

Article 20

OTHER INCOME

 

  1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment. In such a case the provisions of Article 7 shall apply.

 

Article 21

CAPITAL

  1. Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that another State.
  1. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Capital represented by ships and aircraft operated by a resident of a Contracting State in international traffic and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
  1. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

 

Article 22

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

  1. Subject to the provisions of the law of Luxembourg regarding the elimination of double taxation which shall not affect the general principle hereof, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:
  1. a) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Kazakhstan, Luxembourg shall, subject to the provisions of sub-paragraphs b) and c), exempt such income or capital from tax, but may, in order to calculate the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of the resident, apply the same rates of tax as if the income or capital had not been exempted.
  1. b) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 10, 11, 12 and 16 may be taxed in Kazakhstan, Luxembourg shall allow as a deduction from the income tax on individuals or from the corporation tax of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Kazakhstan. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such items of income derived from Kazakhstan.
  1. c) The provisions of sub-paragraph a) shall not apply to income derived or capital owned by a resident of Luxembourg where Kazakhstan applies the provisions of this  Convention to exempt such income or capital from tax or applies the provisions of paragraph 2 of Articles 10, 11 or 12 to such income.
  1. In the case of Kazakhstan, double taxation shall be avoided as follows:
  2. a) Where a resident of Kazakhstan derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, may be taxed in Luxembourg, Kazakhstan shall allow:
  1. i) as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the income tax paid in Luxembourg;
  1. ii) as a deduction from the tax on the capital of that resident, an amount equal to the capital tax paid in Luxembourg. Such deduction in either case shall not, however, exceed that part of the income tax or capital tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income or the capital which may be taxed in Luxembourg.
  1. b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Convention income derived or capital owned by a resident of Kazakhstan is exempt from tax in Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of such resident, take into account the exempted income or capital.

 

Article 23

NON-DISCRIMINATION

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.
  1. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  1. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 8 of Article 11, of paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for  the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. Similarly, any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State.
  1. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first mentioned State are or may be subjected.
  1. The provisions of this Article shall apply to taxes covered by this Convention.

 

Article 24 

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

  1. [Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 23, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national.] The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.
  1. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.
  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.
  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly, including through a joint commission consisting of themselves or their representatives, for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs.

Article 25

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is foreseeably relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their central or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1.
  1. Any information received under paragraph 1 by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, the determination of appeals in relation to the taxes referred to in paragraph 1, or the oversight of the above. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
  1. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
  1. a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  1. b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
  1. c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (order public).
  1. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject  to the limitations of paragraph 3 but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.
  1. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 3 be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information upon request solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person.

 

Article 26

ASSISTANCE IN THE COLLECTION OF TAXES

  1. The Contracting States shall lend assistance to each other in the collection of revenue claims. This assistance is restricted by Articles 1 and 2. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this Article.
  1. The term “revenue claim” as used in this Article means an amount owed in respect of taxes as referred to in Article 2, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to this Convention or any other international agreement to which the Contracting States are parties, as well as interest, administrative penalties and costs of collection or conservancy related to such an amount.
  1. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of collection by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That revenue claim shall be collected by that other State in accordance with the provisions of its laws applicable to the enforcement and collection of its own taxes as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State.
  1. When a revenue claim of a Contracting State is a claim in respect of which that State may, under its law, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, that revenue claim shall, at the request of the competent authority of that State, be accepted for purposes of taking measures of conservancy by the competent authority of the other Contracting State. That other State shall take measures of conservancy in respect of that, revenue claim in accordance with the provisions of its laws as if the revenue claim were a revenue claim of that other State even if, at the time when such measures are applied, the revenue claim is not enforceable in the first-mentioned State or is owed by a person who has a right to prevent its collection.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for purposes of paragraph 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, be subject to the time limits or accorded any priority applicable to a revenue claim under the laws of that State by reason of its nature as such. In addition, a revenue claim accepted by a Contracting State for the purposes of paragraphs 3 or 4 shall not, in that State, have any priority applicable to that revenue claim under the laws of the other Contracting State.
  1. Proceedings with respect to the existence, validity or the amount of a revenue claim of a Contracting State shall not be brought before the courts or administrative bodies of the other Contracting State.
  1. Where, at any time after a request has been made by a Contracting State under paragraphs 3 or 4 and before the other Contracting State has collected and remitted the relevant revenue claim to the first-mentioned State, the relevant revenue claim ceases to be:
  1. a) in the case of a request under paragraph 3, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State that is enforceable under the laws of that State and is owed by a person who, at that time, cannot, under the laws of that State, prevent its collection, or
  1. b) in the case of a request under paragraph 4, a revenue claim of the first-mentioned State in respect of which that State may, under its laws, take measures of conservancy with a view to ensure its collection, the competent authority of the first-mentioned State shall promptly notify the competent authority of the other State of that fact and, at the option of the other State, the first-mentioned State shall either suspend or withdraw its request.
  1. In no case shall the provisions of this Article be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
  1. a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;
  1. b) to carry out measures which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public);
  1. c) to provide assistance if the other Contracting State has not pursued all reasonable measures of collection or conservancy, as the case may be, available under its laws or administrative practice;
  1. d) to provide assistance in those cases where the administrative burden for that State is clearly disproportionate to the benefit to be derived by the other Contracting State.

Article 27 

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

 

Article 28

EXCLUSION OF CERTAIN COMPANIES

This Convention shall not apply to holding companies within the meaning of special Luxembourg laws, currently the Act of 31 July 1929 and the Decree of 17 December 1938, neither shall it apply to income derived from such companies by a resident of Kazakhstan nor to shares or other rights in such companies owned by such a person.

 

Article 29

ENTRY INTO FORCE

  1. This Convention shall be ratified and shall enter into force on the date of receipt of the latter notification on performance by the Contracting States of their domestic legal procedures necessary for its entry into force.
  1. This Convention shall be applicable:
  2. a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income derived on or after 1 January of the calendar year next following the year in which the Convention enters into force;
  1. b) in respect of other taxes on income, and taxes on capital, to taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January of the calendar year next following the year in which the Convention enters into force.

Article 30

AMENDMENTS

By mutual consent of the Contracting States, modifications and additions to this Convention can be made by protocols, which shall form an integral part of this Convention.

Article 31

TERMINATION

  1. This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year beginning after the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force.
  1. The Convention shall cease to have effect:
  2. a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income derived on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given;
  1. b) in respect of other taxes on income, and taxes on capital, to taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given.

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