Double Tax Treaty between Luxembourg & Qatar | Damalion

 AGREEMENT BETWEEN 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF QATAR FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES 

ON INCOME AND ON CAPITAL 

 

The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Government of the State of Qatar, 

Desiring to conclude an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital,

Have agreed as follows: 

Article 1

PERSONS COVERED

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

  1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income and on capital imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
  1. There shall be regarded as taxes on income and on capital, all taxes imposed on total income and on total capital or on elements of income or of capital.
  1. The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are:

(a) in the case of the State of Qatar:

taxes on income

(hereinafter referred to as “Qatari tax”); and

(b) in the case of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg:

(i) the income tax on individuals (l’impôt sur le revenu des personnes physiques);

(ii) the corporation tax (l’impôt sur le revenu des collectivités);

(iii) the capital tax (l’impôt sur la fortune); and

(iv) the communal trade tax (l’impôt commercial communal);

(hereinafter referred to as “Luxembourg tax”).

  1. The Agreement shall also apply to any identical or substantially similar taxes that are imposed after the date of signature of this Agreement in addition to, or in place of the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any significant changes that have been made in their respective tax laws.

 

Article 3

GENERAL DEFINITIONS

  1. For the purpose of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term “Qatar” means the State of Qatar’s lands, internal waters, territorial sea including its bed and subsoil, the airspace over them, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, over which the State of Qatar exercises sovereign rights and jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of International law and Qatar’s national laws and regulations;

(b)the term “Luxembourg” means the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and, when used in a geographical sense, means the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;

(c) the term “a Contracting State” and “the other Contracting State” means Qatar or Luxembourg, as the context requires;

(d)the term “company” means any body corporate or any entity that is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(e) the term “competent authority” means:

  1. i) in the case of the State of Qatar, the Minister of Economy and Finance, or his authorized representative, and
  2. ii) in the case of Luxembourg, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;

(f) the terms “enterprise of a Contracting State” and “enterprise of the other Contracting State” mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(g) the term “international traffic” means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise that has its place of effective management in a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

(h)the term “national” means:

  1. i) individual possessing the nationality of Contracting State;
  2. ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;

(i) the term “person” includes, an individual, a company and any other body of persons which is treated as an entity for tax purposes; and also includes a Contracting State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof.

  1. When implementing the provisions of this Agreement by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the law of that State concerning the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

 

Article 4

RESIDENT

  1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “resident of a Contracting State” means:

(a) in the case of the State of Qatar, any individual domiciled in Qatar provided such individual has a permanent home, his center of vital interest, or habitual abode in Qatar, and a company having its place of effective management in Qatar. The term also includes the State of Qatar and any local authority, political subdivision or statutory body thereof;

(b) in the case of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, any person who, under Luxembourg law, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes Luxembourg and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in Luxembourg in respect only of income from sources in Luxembourg or capital situated therein.

  1. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him, if he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which his personal and economic relations are closer (center of vital interests);

(b) if the Contracting State in which he has his center of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either Contracting State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State in which he has a habitual abode;

(c) if he has a habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the Contracting State of which he is a national;

(d) if the residence status of an individual cannot be determined in accordance with the provisions of sub-paras (a), (b) and (c) above, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle this question by mutual agreement.

  1. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

 

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT

  1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term “permanent establishment” means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
  1. The term “permanent establishment” includes especially:

(a) place of management;

(b) a branch;

(c) an office;

(d) a factory;

(e) a workshop;

(f) premises used as sales outlet;

(g) a farm or plantation;

(h) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of exploration, extraction or exploitation, of natural resources; and

(i) a building site, a construction, assembly or installation project or any supervisory activity in connection with such site or project, but only where such site, project or activity continues for a period of more than (6) six months.

  1. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term “permanent establishment” shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

(b)the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

(d)the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character; or

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person – other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies – is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 3 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
  1. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance enterprise of a Contracting State except in regard to reinsurance, shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums on the territory of that other Contracting State or insures risks situated therein through a person, other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies.
  1. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, and conditions are made or imposed between that enterprise and the agent in their commercial and financial relations which differ from those which would have been made between independent enterprises, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.
  1. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

 

Article 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. The term “immovable property” shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall, in any case, include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufructs of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources. Ships and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting or use in any other form of immovable property.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise, and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

 

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

  1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
  1. In the determination of the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deduction expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, which are allowed under the provisions of the domestic law of the Contracting State in where the permanent establishment is situated.
  1. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.
  1. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
  1. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless There is a good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
  1. Where profits include items of income, which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

 

Article 8

SHIPPING AND AIR TRANSPORT

  1. Profits from the operation of ships or aircrafts in international traffic shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.
  1. If the place of effective management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State of where the operator of the ship is a resident.
  2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9

ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

  1. Where:

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b)the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

  1. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State – and taxes accordingly – profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State may make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

DIVIDENDS

  1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed:

(a) zero per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which holds directly at least 10 percent of the capital of the company paying the dividends;

(b) 5 percent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is an individual who holds directly at least 10 percent of the capital of the company paying the dividends and who has been a resident of that other Contracting State for a period of 48 months immediately preceding the year within which the dividends are paid;

(c) 10 percent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases. This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

  1. The term “dividends” as used in this Article means income from shares or other rights, participating in profits, not being debt-claims, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the Contracting State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
  1. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  1. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company’s undistributed profits to a tax on undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other States.

Article 11

INTEREST

  1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in that other State.
  1. The term “interest” as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor’s profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purposes of this Article.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such a permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  1. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

 

Article 12

ROYALTIES

  1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in the first mentioned State. The tax so charged shall not exceed (5) five percent of the gross amount of the royalties.
  1. The term “royalties” as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work (including cinematograph films and films, tapes or discs for radio or television broadcasting), any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein,  or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishments or fixed bases. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  1. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or fixed base with which the right, property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected, and such royalties are borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the a permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
  1. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the in the absence of such a relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13

CAPITAL GAINS

  1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircrafts operated in international traffic or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircrafts, shall he taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.
  1. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3, shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

 

Article 14

INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character of similar nature shall be taxable only in that State. Nevertheless, this income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State in the following two cases:

(a) if the said person has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, the income may be taxed in the other Contracting State but only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base; or

(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days within any twelve month; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from his activities performed in that other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

  1. The term “professional services” includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

 

Article 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

  1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 (one hundred eighty three) days in any twelve-month period commencing or ending in the calendar year concerned, and

(b)the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and

(c) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or fixed base which the employer is in another State.

  1. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived from an employment exercised on board a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic may be taxed in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.
  1. Salaries, wages, allowances and perquisites received by an employee of an airline or shipping enterprise of a Contracting State and stationed in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management of the enterprise is situated.

 

Article 16

DIRECTORS’ FEES

Directors’ fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

 

Article 17

ARTISTS AND SPORTSPERSONS

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by entertainers or sportspersons in their capacities as such accrues not to the entertainers or sportspersons themselves but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15 be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainers or sportspersons are exercised.
  1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from activities exercised in the other Contracting State as envisaged in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, shall be exempted from tax in that other State if the visit to that other State is supported wholly or substantially by funds of either Contracting State, a political subdivision or a local authority thereof, or takes place under a cultural agreement or arrangement between the Governments of the Contracting States.

 

Article 18

PENSIONS AND ANNUITIES

  1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration and annuities paid to a resident of Contracting State, shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. The term “annuity” means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money’s worth.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions and other payments made under the social security legislation of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, pensions and other similar remuneration (including lump-sum payments) arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State, provided that such payments derive from contributions paid to or from provisions made under a pension scheme by the recipient or on his behalf and that these contributions, provisions or the pensions or other similar remuneration have been subject to tax in the first-mentioned State under the ordinary rules of its tax laws.

 

Article 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

  1. (a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries, wages and similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that other State and the individual is a resident of that other State who:

  1. i) is a national of that other State; or
  2. ii) did not become a resident of that other State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
  1. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State the an individual is a resident of, and a national of, that other State.

  1. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 of this Agreement shall apply to salaries, wages and similar remuneration, and to pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.

Article 20

TEACHERS AND RESEARCHERS

  1. An individual who is immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who, at the invitation of the Government of the first-mentioned Contracting State or of a university, college, school, museum or other cultural institution in that first-mentioned Contracting State or under an official program of cultural exchange is present in that Contracting State for a period not exceeding three consecutive years solely for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures or carrying out research at such institution shall be exempted from tax in that Contracting State on his remuneration for such activity, provided that payment of such remuneration is derived by him from outside that Contracting State.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to income from research if such research is undertaken not in the public interest but primarily for the private benefit of a specific person or persons.

 

Article 21

STUDENTS AND TRAINEES

  1. Payments which a student or business apprentice or trainee who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that Contracting State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that Contracting State.
  1. In respect of grants, scholarships and remuneration from employment not covered by paragraph 1, a student, business apprentice or trainee described in paragraph 1 shall, in addition, be entitled during the normal duration of such education or training to the same exemptions, reliefs or reductions in respect of taxes available to residents of the State which he is visiting.

 

Article 22

OTHER INCOME

  1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt within the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State.
  1. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case, the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, items of income of a resident of a Contracting State not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of the Agreement and arising in the other Contracting State may also be taxed in that other State.

 

Article 23

CAPITAL

  1. Capital represented by immovable property referred to in Article 6, owned by a resident of a Contracting State and situated in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that another State.
  1. Capital represented by movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or by movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, may be taxed in that other State.
  1. Capital represented by ships and aircraft operated in international traffic and by movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State in which the place of effective management is situated.
  1. All other elements of capital of a resident of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State.

 

Article 24

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

  1. In the case of Qatar, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows: Where a resident of Qatar derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, is taxable in Luxembourg, then Qatar shall allow as a deduction from the tax on income of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Luxembourg provided that such deduction shall not exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to the income derived from Luxembourg.
  1. In the case of Luxembourg, and subject to the provisions of the law of Luxembourg Regarding the elimination of double taxation which shall not affect the general principle hereof, double taxation shall be eliminated as follows:

(a) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income or owns capital which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Qatar, Luxembourg shall, subject to provisions of sub-paragraphs (b) and (c), exempt such income or capital from tax, but may, in order to calculate the amount of tax on the remaining income or capital of the resident, apply the same rates of tax as if the income or capital had not been exempted.

(b) Where a resident of Luxembourg derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of Article 10, 12 and 17 may be taxed in Qatar, Luxembourg shall allow as a deduction from the income tax on individuals or from the corporation tax of that resident an amount equal to the tax paid in Qatar. Such deduction shall not, however, exceed that part of the tax, as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable to such items of income derived from Qatar.

(c) The provisions of sub-paragraph (a) shall not apply to income derived or capital owned by a resident of Luxembourg where Qatar applies the provisions of this Agreement to exempt such income or capital from tax or applies the provisions of paragraph 2 of Articles 10 or 12 to such income.

 

Article 25

NON-DISCRIMINATION

  1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected.
  1. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favorably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
  1. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirements connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.
  1. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 4 of Article 11, or paragraph 5 of Article 12 apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State. Similarly any debts of an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable capital of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been contracted to a resident of the first-mentioned State.
  1. The exemption of Qatari and other members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nationals under Qatari tax law shall not be considered as discrimination under the provision of this Article.
  1. The provisions of this Article shall apply to taxes covered by this Agreement.

 

Article 26 

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE 

  1. Where a resident considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation, not in accordance with this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 25 to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national.] The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. 
  1. The competent authority shall endeavor if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting State.
  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavor to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.
  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. The competent authorities, through consultations, shall develop appropriate bilateral procedures, conditions, methods, and techniques for the implementation of the mutual agreement procedure provided for in this Article.

 

Article 27

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

  1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is relevant for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or to the administration or enforcement of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political subdivisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2.
  1. Any information received under paragraph (1) by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes referred to in paragraph (1). Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
  1. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b)to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (order public).

  1. If information is requested by a Contracting State in accordance with this Article, the other Contracting State shall use its information gathering measures to obtain the requested information, even though that other State may not need such information for its own tax purposes. The obligation contained in the preceding sentence is subject to the limitations of paragraph (3) but in no case shall such limitations be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information solely because it has no domestic interest in such information.
  1. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph (3) be construed to permit a Contracting State to decline to supply information upon request solely because the information is held by a bank, other financial institution, nominee or person acting in an agency or a fiduciary capacity or because it relates to ownership interests in a person

 

Article 28 

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS 

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements. 

 

Article 29

ENTRY INTO FORCE

  1. The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing, through diplomatic channels, that the procedures required by their laws for the entry into force of this Agreement have been satisfied. The Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the last notification.
  1. This Agreement shall have effect:

(a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income derived on or after 1st of January of the calendar year following the year in which the Agreement enters into force;

(b) in respect of other taxes on income and taxes on capital to taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1st of January of the calendar year following the year in which the Agreement enters into force.

 

Article 30

TERMINATION

  1. This Agreement shall remain in force until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving written notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year following the expiration of a period of five years from the date of its entry into force.
  1. This Agreement cease to have effect:

(a) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to income derived on or after 1st of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice is given;

(b) in respect of other taxes on income and taxes on capital to taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1st of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice is given.

 

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